E11: Reflections

Adrianna Blanchette

December 1, 2014

E11: Reflections


This seminar has opened my eyes and mind to how important it is for students to interact and to be involved in other students’ cultures. There are ten ideas that has enhanced my knowledge and disposition. The first idea is epals. I was first introduced to this during this course. I was able to interact with students from all over the world on topics that interested them and myself. The second idea is comparing school systems. I found that school across the world teach students very differently. I personally did my project on China’s school system and their students are required to attend school much longer than students in the U.S. The third idea is social barometers. I had no idea what this was up until this class. This deals with social behaviors and norms in a social situation. The fourth idea is what makes a school effective. Throughout the course we went through multiple ways of how we as teachers can make school effective for our students. The fifth idea is the importance of multiple intelligences. Teachers need to be aware of multiple intelligences to provide the best possible learning for their students. The sixth idea is making accommodations. The seventh idea is making a culture night. I believe teachers should incorporate their students’ cultures in the classroom. A good idea is having a culture night. During this time parents can bring in information or a favorite dish from the culture and share it with the rest of the class and their parents. The eighth idea is cooperation. This cooperation is between multiple people including teachers, parents, students, faculty and staff. Everyone involved in the student’s education should be on the same page and cooperate with one another in order for the student to receive the best possible education. The ninth idea is that it is important for teachers to know and understand their students. As teachers it is our job to provide the best possible education for our students and to do so we need to understand how our students learn. This being said students learn in many different ways. We need to be able to adapt to our situations and change our teaching styles so that they fit to our students’ needs. The tenth idea is inclusion. Inclusion deals with having all students in the same classroom no matter their learning styles. In order for this to work, the teacher and paraprofessionals need to be on the same page and work together. Some students may require extra attention and assistance during lessons. These paraprofessionals are there to help. Having all the students in one learning environment creates a sense of inviting and welcoming for all the students.  Five memorable readings that I will take away from this class are “The Vilis Tokples Schools of Papua New Guinea”, “Language Diversity and Learning”, “Teaching the Hard of Head”, “Cross-cultural confusions in teacher assessment” and “Hello, Grandfather”. All of these readings came from our text, “Other People’s Children” by Lisa Delpit.


E9: Accommodations

Adrianna Blanchette

November 18, 2014

E9: Accommodations

Accommodations for students are so important for students to succeed. No two students are the same and they also do not learn the same either. As teachers, it is our responsibility to make accommodations for our students in order for them to learn to best way possible.

“While the inclusion process has been mandated by international legislation (United Nations, 2006), many barriers have been encountered such as inadequate teacher training and professional development, lack of competence, limited support, large class sizes, and time and administrative demands, as well as low efficacy to teach students with disabilities.” (Block, Hutzler, Barak, & Klavina,  (2013)). Inclusion is very important for all students to feel that they belong in the classroom. This feeling of belonging provides the student with a sense of welcoming to allow the student to learn as well as they can. Teachers need to have the proper training to make these accommodations necessary. Teachers need to be able to balance their classrooms in order to teach all of their students.

“An accommodation is used when the teacher believes that the student can achieve the same level of participation or accomplishment as the rest of the class, but just needs some additional support. An accommodation allows a student to complete the same assignment or activity as the other students in the class, but the student is offered a change in such things as formatting, setting, amount of time needed, or type of response that is required. When making an accommodation, a teacher might give the student extra time to learn a skill, extra peer support during class, or additional instruction after class for the student to participate and achieve at the same level as the other students in the class. An accommodation does not change the nature of what the assignment is or what the test measures or the final skill that the student develops. This can also be called a remediation approach, as the teacher is working to remediate the student’s difficulties so that he or she can perform the same tasks as the other students.” (Darrow, (2007)). There are many types of accommodations that teachers can provide for their students. A teacher may have to make multiple accommodations for one student and man multiple students will need these accommodations. This may be tough on teachers trying to make all of these accommodations. Teachers can find help making these accommodations in their classrooms. There are many paraprofessionals and other staff that can assist the teachers when prepping for making accommodations and following through on the accommodations.

“Those students whose languages, cultures, and economic backgrounds substantially differ from the mainstream middle class may find it challenging to reconcile the inconsistencies between the two spaces. Many researchers have documented how the potential ensuing conflicts may make it difficult for culturally and linguistically diverse students to earn and perform successfully in some academic settings. Culturally responsive practitioners are charged with the important task of creating bridges for students to access curriculum and nurture their identities as members of multiple communities. They understand that ethnic labels fail to provide enough information for them to fully understand a student’s dynamic and complex culture as it relates to the classroom setting and that context plays an equally important role in instructional decisions.” (Rueda, Hyo Jin, & Velasco (2007)). Teachers need to be aware of all of their students’ cultures and backgrounds. These cultures and backgrounds may affect the students’ learning styles and environment. Teachers should embrace these cultures and backgrounds in the classroom. If the students are aware of these cultures and backgrounds, they may come together and share their backgrounds. This may lead to creating a welcoming learning environment.

Accommodations are necessary for students to have the best possible learning environment. All students are different which leads to them requiring different accommodations. Inclusion is a process where all students learn together no matter their needs. Teachers need proper training to provide the adequate tools for these students. There is always help in one’s school system whether it is paraprofessionals or other faulty that can assist teachers in providing proper accommodations. Remembering and embracing the students’ cultures and backgrounds is very important for the learning environment. Students may be able to come together through their different cultures and backgrounds.





Block, M. E., Hutzler, Y. ., Barak, S., & Klavina, A. (2013). Creation and Validation of the Self-Efficacy Instrument for Physical Education Teacher Education Majors Toward Inclusion. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 30(2), 184-205.

Crundwell, R. M., & Killu, K. (2007). Understanding AND Accommodating Students With Depression IN THE Classroom. Teaching Exceptional Children, 40(1), 48-54.

Darrow, A. (2007). Adaptations in the Classroom: Accommodations and Modifications: Part I. General Music Today, 20(3), 32-34.

Foorman, B. R. (2007). Primary Prevention in Classroom Reading Instruction. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(5), 24-30.Kelepouris, C. (2014). TRANSITIONING STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES INTO HIGHER EDUCATION. Brigham Young University Education & Law Journal, (1), 27-39.

Rueda, R., Hyo Jin, L., & Velasco, A. (2007). Cultural Accommodations in the Classroom: An Instructional Perspective. Multiple Voices For Ethnically Diverse Exceptional Learners, 10(1/2), 61-72.

Scanlon, D., & Baker, D. (2012). An Accommodations Model for the Secondary Inclusive Classroom. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35(4), 212-224. doi:10.1177/0731948712451261

Scruggs, T. E., Brigham, F. J., & Mastropieri, M. A. (2013). Common Core Science Standards: Implications for Students with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice (Wiley-Blackwell), 28(1), 49-57. doi:10.1111/ldrp.12002

Tiana Ferrer, A. (2011). The concept of popular education revisited – or what do we talk about when we speak of popular education. Paedagogica Historica, 47(1/2), 15-31. doi:10.1080/00309230.2010.530276

Zebehazy, K. T., Zigmond, N., & Zimmerman, G. J. (2012). Performance Measurement and Accommodation: Students with Visual Impairments on Pennsylvania’s Alternate Assessment. Journal Of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 106(1), 17-30.



E8: Comparative Education

Slide 1: Education in China vs. United States

By: Adrianna Blanchette

E8: Comparative Education

November 10, 2014

Slide 2: History of Chinese’s Education

“In the course of the past three decades of development, the Chinese government has put forward a series of policy documents with regard to the reform and development of education.” (Wenbin, 2012).

Slide 3: History of Chinese’s Education (cont.)

“After 1976, elementary mathematics education quickly returned to the pre-1963 track. The teaching quality improved greatly. In 1977, the national college entrance examination system was restored, and students showed unprecedented enthusiasm to learning. Elementary mathematical education entered a new era through exchange with western countries. New educational methodologies were introduced from overseas: the practice of “standardized tests” was adopted for the Chinese college entrance examination.” (Zhnag)

Slide 4: Education in China

“The Chinese government has placed priority on developing education, putting forward the strategy of revitalizing the country through science and education, making constant efforts to deepen the reform of educational system, and implementing the nine-year compulsory education. Governments at all levels are increasing investment in education and encourage people to run education through different channels and in different forms.” (Beijing International)

China’s school education includes:

  • Pre-school
  1.                   For students who are 3-5 years old
  2.                   This takes place in kindergartens
  • Primary
  1.                   For students who are 6-11 years old
  2.                   Typically ran by local educational authorities and provide free tuition
  3.                   Private schools that are owned by enterprises and individuals are offered

Slide 5: Education in China (cont.)

  • Secondary
  1.                  For students who are 12-17 years old
  2.                  This education is ran by local governments and various business authorities
  3.                  The first three years of secondary school are compulsory and tuition is free
  4.                  Senior middle school is not compulsory and students must pay minimal tuition fees.
  5.                 Graduates fro secondary professional schools are see to have achieved a higher level in some ways akin to a university education
  6.                 Students graduating from junior middle schools usually go on to senior middle schools where some move to vocational high schools or secondary professional schools  for 3-5 years of study.

Slide 6:Education in China (cont.)

  • Higher Education
  1.                 The opinions for higher education include vocational courses, undergraduate, postgraduate and doctoral degrees
  2.                 These are offered in universities, colleges, institutes and vocational colleges
  3.                 Conduct academic and scientific research
  4.                 Provide social serives as well as offering courses to students
  5.                 To enter a university or college, students have to take the national entrance exam
  6.                 This exam takes place every June and is now open to people of all ages
  7.                 Entrance is based on each student’s marks on the exam and due to the number of people sitting the exam

(Beijing International)

Slide 7: Comparing U.S. and Chinese Public School Systems

  • Teachers in China are given more respect than teachers in the U.S. Some examples of this are that teachers do not pay taxes on their salary, and they receive their own national holiday. This holiday is called “Teachers Day” and is celebrated on September 29th.
  • Chinese schools have a hard work ethic, resulting in student success.
  • Chinese schools do not segregate high achieving students from lower achieving students through tracking levels. They believe that all students can succeed if they put in the effort.
  • The U.S. universities and colleges are the best in the world. Students from all over the world come to receive a high quality education in American universities.

(University of Michigan)

Slide 8: Comparing U.S. and Chinese Public School Systems (cont.)

  • The Chinese education system uses high stakes testing in order to pass into the next grade. This testing results in many students being left with no other choice but to drop out of the school system all together.
  • American and Chinese students have the same amount of allocated time. The amount of engaged time spent in school is dramatically less than their Chinese counterparts.
  • If schools in the U.S. public system were to incorporate the positive aspects that make the Chinese school system so successful, schools in the U.S. would in turn be more successful.

(University of Michigan)

Slide 9: Math curriculum in the U.S.

  • For more than a decade, research studies of mathematics education in high-performing countries have concluded that mathematics education in the United States must become substantially more focused and coherent in order to improve mathematics achievement in this country. To deliver on this promise, the mathematics standards are designed to address the problem of a curriculum that is “a mile wide and an inch deep.”
  • These new standards build on the best of high-quality math standards from states across the country. They also draw on the most important international models for mathematical practice, as well as research and input from numerous sources, including state departments of education, scholars, assessment developers, professional organizations, educators, parents and students, and members of the public.
  • Slide 10: Math curriculum in the U.S. (cont.)
  • The math standards provide clarity and specificity rather than broad general statements. They endeavor to follow the design envisioned by William Schmidt and Richard Houang (2002), by not only stressing conceptual understanding of key ideas, but also by continually returning to organizing principles such as place value and the laws of arithmetic to structure those ideas.

Common core math is set up into 11 sections:

  • Counting & cardinality
  • Operations & algebraic thinking
  • Number & operations in base ten
  • Number & operations – fractions
  • Measurement & data

Slide 11: Math curriculum in the U.S. (cont.)

  • Geometry
  • Ratios & proportional Relationships
  • The number system
  • Expressions & equations
  • Functions
  • Statistics & probability

(common core math)

Slide 12: Math curriculum in China

  • Arrangement of offices for teachers of different subject areas ensure that teachers can learn from each other
  • Provides opportunities for teachers to share useful teaching techniques, design effective lessons and discuss students’ problems
  • School typically has two daily sessions. The morning session of four classes start at 8am and finish at 11:30am. The students have a two and a half hour lunch break. They then return for two more classes. Classes end at 3:40 which is followed by an hour long after school homework session.
  • Each week teachers have in-service teacher training for a half day.
  • During this time the trainers provide one centralized standard curriculum. This curriculum serves as a guideline for teachers’ daily lesson plans.


Slide 13: Comparing and Contrasting China and U.S. education systems

  • China:
  1. Chinese education system is broken down into 6 years of elementary schools
  2. 3 years of middle school
  3. 3 years of high school
  4. High school is not mandatory is not mandatory in China
  5. Being excepted into high school is a competitive process dealing with an exam and vocational studies.
  6. There are few extracurricular or athletic programs that are available for students
  • U.S.:
  1. Four years of high school where high school is mandatory
  2. All students are excepted into high school where no exam is necessary to get into high school
  3. There are many extracurricular and athletic programs that are offered
  4. Colleges look for students to be parts of these programs while maintaining good grades.

Slide 14: Bibliography (1)

Slide 15: Bibliography (2)

  • Beijing International. I want to learn about Chinc’a education system. Available at http://www.ebeijing.gov.cn/Elementals/InBeijing/StudyingInBJ/t1017556.htm.
  • Common Core: State Standards Initiative. Available athttp://www.corestandards.org/Math/
  • Han, A. (2011). National Council of teachers of Mathematics. China’s Mathematics Pedagogy and Practices: What can we learn?
  • Fraser, D. W. (2013). 5 Tips for Creating Independent Activities Aligned With the Common Core State Standards. Teaching Exceptional Children, 45(6), 6-15.
  • HAKUTA, K., SANTOS, M., & FANG, Z. (2013). Challenges and Opportunities for Language Learning in the Context of the CCSS and the NGSS. Journal Of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 56(6), 451-454. doi:10.1002/JAAL.164

E7: Looking to the Future

Adrianna Blanchette

E7: Looking to the Future

November 3, 2014


In chapter 1, “Cross-cultural confusion in Teacher Assessment” I found four important facts that stood out to me. The first fact is that one of the most difficult tasks that people face is trying to communicate with different individual differences and trying to make sure what we say is interpreted the way we intend it to be. The second fact is that teachers use communication to increase their students and students’ parents’ diversity. The third fact is that research suggests that children of color value the social aspects of an environment to a greater extent that do “mainstream” children. The fourth fact is that other cultural groups consider expressions of genuine emotion and personal presence to be at the core of the teaching role.

In chapter 2, “The Politics of Teaching Literate Discourse” I found three important facts that stood out to me. The first fact is that teachers must acknowledge and validate students’ home language without using it to limit students’ potential. The second fact is that teachers need to be aware that discourses at home affect the student’s learning at school. The student may appear that they are unable to learn but it may just be that they are choosing not to learn. The third fact is that “When teachers are committed to teaching all students, and when they understand that through their teaching change can occur, then the chance for transformation is great. (Delpit, 2006)

In chapter 3, “Education in a multicultural Society: Our Future’s Greatest Challenge” I found four important facts that stood out to me. The first fact is that children cannot be placed into a mold of how they are supposed to act. The second fact is that teachers should not be afraid to use styles of instruction and/or discipline that are different from the community norms. The third fact is that the academic needs for Asian-American students are overlooked due to the stereotype that Asian-American children are “perfect” students. The fourth fact is that “when instruction allows no opportunity for children to use their minds to create and interpret texts, then children will only focus on low-level thinking.” (Delpit, 2006)

In chapter 4, “Reflections on Other People’s Children” I found important facts that stood out to me. The first fact is that Other People’s Children is capable of altering students’ perceptions and their idea of themselves as teachers. The second fact is that student teacher and teacher of color in the same classes see truths in the book that white students deny. For me personally being a white student teacher, it opened my eyes tremendously to the differences between teachers and students of color. There was also much knowledge that I have learned through my years in school but so much was brought right up front and made me realize that some things that are happening should not be. After reading, I will focus on making sure these will not be happening in my own classroom.

In chapter 5, “Teaching the Hard of Head” I found one important fact that stood out to me. This fact is that students need to learn how to think self-reflexively. I as a student, was only asked to self-reflexive starting my freshman year of college. I personally feel that this was too late. I felt as if I was unsure of what they expected from me. I always wanted to give my professors the correct answer rather than really digging deep and seeing how and why I had done something. I completely agree that students should be expected to be self-reflexive at a much earlier age. While completing my student teacher, I did see that the teachers have the students reflect on his or her own work. I think this is a great tool in order for students to understand what is expected from them and to feel comfortable doing so.

In chapter 6, “Other People’s Children: The Lasting Impact” the author spoke about how this book has affected their teaching practice and their ways of being in the school community. I feel that I my teaching practices and approaches changed drastically over the last few years while being in school and preforming clinical hours and student teaching. While completing clinical hours and student teaching, you may receive personal stories from your fellow cooperating teachers or colleagues. The text has provided even more insight to students and teachers’ perception of so many ideas in the school system. I will take these ideas and make sure that I remember them while working with students and fellow colleagues.

The following are two articles that I found while researching that relate to the prior topics: Increasing teacher diversity: Growing Your Own through Partnerships and Designing Online Learning Opportunities for Students with Disabilities. “The student population in public schools is becoming increasingly diverse is not all that surprising. Studies indicate that in less than three decades, a majority of children will likely belong to race-ethnic minorities. Conversely, teacher candidates are not keeping pace with the diversity ratio of students in the PK-12 public school classrooms. The diversity gap between teachers and the students they teach is only widening.” (Schmitz, Nourse, & Ross, (2012).) I also see this diversity gap while in school. I have seen a greater diversity jump while completing my clinical hours and student teaching. This has significantly increased since I have attended middle school. “Like any classroom instructional material, content provides a foundation for how instruction may be defined for the student, as well as how the instruction may engage the student in learning. Some content, however, may be completely inaccessible for a student. That is, the content may require sensory or even cognitive processing that is beyond the student’s abilities. Our purpose then is to assist teachers in determining accessible and appropriate blended and fully online content and the learning management system in which the content is embedded, in reference to struggling learners and students with disabilities.” (Smith, & Basham(2014).) This is a new way to integrate all students in the classroom. As teachers it is our responsibility to provide the best education possible for all of our students. I believe that this will help achieve our goal as teachers.

Before attending Eastern’s education program, I was raised in a small town and attended a catholic school up until 8th grade. I always had female white teachers and there was little diversity in the classrooms. After this I went to a public high school which was a very huge culture shock to myself. I was thrown into many different cultures and diversities in my school that I was not aware of. From this point on I feel that I still am learning about different cultures every day. After reading the sections in the book and the articles, it has come to my attention that I still need to keep my eyes open for ways to improve inviting diversity into my life. I believe that my clinical hours and student teaching helped me tremendously in achieving a huge chunk so far. But as it is said, a teacher’s work is never done. I plan to learn and embrace all diversity thrown my way and invite my future students to do the same.



Delpit, L. (2006). Other People’s Children. New York: The New Press.

Schmitz, S. A., Nourse, S. W., & Ross, M. E. (2012). INCREASING TEACHER DIVERSITY: GROWING YOUR OWN THROUGH PARTNERSHIPS. Education, 133(1), 181-187.

Smith, S. J., & Basham, J. D. (2014). Designing Online Learning Opportunities for Students with Disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children, 46(5), 127-137. doi:10.1177/0040059914530102


E6: Lessons

Adrianna Blanchette

October 20, 2014

E6: Lessons


In chapter one “The Vilis Tokples Schools of Papua New Guinea” there were three important facts that stood out to me. The first fact was that schools were first introduced by the missionaries in local languages. Second, most people believed English to be more important as a written language than as a spoken language. I understand why people value the English written language because you will find it on almost anything, but what surprised me is that they found it more important written than spoken. I suppose they can speak their native tongue and still be able to communicate through writing with English. The last being that in the tokples school, children learned to read, write and count in their mother tongue and, at the same time, received a basic cultural education in the customs, values, and acceptable behavior of their community. I like that they are taught both school education and basic behaviors for their communities at the same time.

In chapter two “Hello, Grandfather: Lessons from Alaska” there were three important facts that stood out to me. The first being that literacy can be a tool of liberation, but, equally it can be a means of control. Literacy can most defiantly be used as a means of control. If a person can’t read or write the other person who can do so may take advantage of this person. The second was that it was believed that educators needed to introduce students to the new skill and the new concepts in contexts they already found familiar. I completely agree with this. Students should be using familiar ideas to learn new ideas. They feel more comfortable while doing so and most likely succeed more in doing so. The third fact was that the context of a message is at least as important as, and often more important that the text of the message.

In chapter three “Teachers’ Voices” there were three important facts that stood out to me. The first fact was that there are many reasons for the decline of minority participation in the teaching force. Second is that students of color are doubly disadvantaged in trying to get their voices heard, particularly in the university classroom. The third fact is that students feel that their instructors exhibit a “low immediacy” behaviors when interacting with them. Some of these behaviors are having a colder voice tone, less eye contact, and distanced body orientation.

In my research I found two articles that related to students feeling distant from their teachers and different teaching styles. According to Conroy, Stichter, Daunic, & Haydon, “Classrooms serving students with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) are complex environments that multiple interactions such as those between (a) students and teachers, (b) students and peers, and (c) temporally distant or concurrent classroom-setting factors and subsequent behavioral episodes.” For students will certain behaviors, it is important to keep a regular routine with no surprises. Interactions between the student and the teacher should be comforting and calming for the student. Having this type of relationship between the teacher and the student will help the student feel less distant from their teachers. According to Hein, Ries, Pires, Caune, Emeljanovas, Ekler, & Valantiniene, “Mosston’s Spectrum of teaching styles (Mosston and Ashworth, 2002) established a framework of possible options in the relationship between teacher and learner and was based on the central importance of decision-making.” It is important for the teacher to fully understand their students to provide the best possible education for the students. The teacher should be aware of how their students learn and in what environments best fit them. In doing so they are building a greater bound to a greater success for the student.

I have learned quite a bit from the readings and the research that I have performed. It is very important for the teacher to know their students. In doing so the students will receive the best education possible for themselves. There are different teaching methods that teachers need to use in order to make sure all of their students receive this education. Teachers need to make sure that they are not putting distant in between themselves and their students, whether it is on purpose or by accident. If this happens the student may not feel comfortable enough to learn in their learning environment. Teachers need to take immediate action to resolve these issues. As teachers, we need to make sure that we do not use literacy as a means of control. Provide students will all possible ways of understanding the literacy and making it available for them. Assist the students who struggle with literacy so that they can become more familiar with these skills.





Delpit, L. (2006). Other People’s Children. New York: The New Press.


Conroy, M. A., Stichter, J. P., Daunic, A., & Haydon, T. (2008). Classroom-Based Research in the Field of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Methodological Issues and Future Research Directions. Journal Of Special Education, 41(4), 209-222. doi:10.1177/0022466907310369


Hein, V., Ries, F., Pires, F., Caune, A., Emeljanovas, A., Ekler, J., & Valantiniene, I. (2012). The relationship between teaching styles and motivation to teach among physical education teachers. Journal Of Sports Science & Medicine, 11(1), 12

E5: Controversies

Adrianna Blanchette

October 13, 2014

E5: Controversies


In chapter one “Skills and Other Dilemmas of a Progressive Black Educator” there were many important facts brought to light for the readers. These facts were that people acquire new dialect most effectively through interaction with speakers of that dialect, people learn to write by writing in meaningful contexts, teachers are so focused on teaching children fluency when they do not realize the fluency that the students already possess, and skills are best taught through meaningful communication. As an education major, many of these facts came naturally and I understood them. The one that stood out to me was that teachers focus on teaching fluency when in all actuality many children already possess this skill. This was strange to me because we are taught to teach these children fluency when they are young and through their elementary years. Not only are we teaching these skills to the students were are modeling the skills for them also.

In chapter two “The Silenced Dialogue: Power and Pedagogy in Educating Other People Children” there were five main facts that had importance to the readers. These facts are “the culture of power”, a move toward indirect communication, the teacher’s role is to maintain the full attention of the group, the importance of actual writing for real audiences and real purposes, and strong beliefs that all students can learn. All of these facts came as knowledge this far in my career expect for “the culture of power.” The author breaks this down into five aspects of power. These aspects are issues of power are enacted in classrooms, there are codes or rules for participating in power, the rules of the culture of power are a reflection of the rules of the culture of those who have power, if you are not already a participant in the culture of power being told explicitly the rules of that culture makes acquiring power easier, and those with power are frequently least aware of its existence. Teachers and people in general need to be aware of the power they possess and need to be careful of how they use this power.

In chapter three “Language Diversity and Learning” there were five main ideas that held importance. These main ideas were acquiring one language variety and learning another, appreciating linguistic diversity in the classroom, activities for promoting linguistic pluralism, ethnic identity and styles of discourse and the demands of school language. Research shows that it is very important for children to be exposed to different languages at a very young age because young children are more to retrieve this knowledge at a young age. As teachers we need to make this language diversity accessible to students of all ages starting at a young age.

In my research I found two articles that related to evidence on learning a second language and how important reading fluency is to children’s education. According to Horst and Bell, “There is evidence that metalinguistic awareness develops more readily in children who learn a second language (Ben-Zeev, 1977; Bialystok, 1986; Galambos & Goldin-Meadow, 1990) and that it can be activated through classroom activities that invite learners to make L1/L2 comparisons.” This being said it is so important for all students to be exposed to a second language. This exposure should start at a very young age because children are able to make connections with this language that they are able to hold on to and recall. Students who start learning a new language later on in life will have a more difficult time learning this new language than a student who has been exposed to it at a young age. The research also talked about how these students who learn a second language at a young age also can help other students who have not learned the other language. There are certain activities that can happen in the classroom where these students can collaborate to learn the new language. According to Tan, Chen & Lee, “Reading fluency is considered critical in skillful reading in that many reading training tools are developed for improving the fluency.” We as educators and future educators have been taught that reading fluency is key in order for students to be successful in their academic careers. We also need to keep in mind that students come with some sort of fluency level. It is our jobs to find these levels and provide the appropriate tools and materials to aid students in improving their reading fluency.

I have learned quite a bit from the readings and the research that I preformed. Some of the material that I came across was knowledge that I had already acquired from my education in becoming an educator. One piece of knowledge that I will know bring into my own career is that all children come with some level of reading fluency. As a teacher, it is my job to find each student’s reading fluency level and to aid the students to improve their reading fluency. A student’s reading fluency helps students in all subjects, not just reading. If you think about it reading is in all subjects. If students struggle with reading then they are bound to struggle in multiple subjects due to the fact that they lack the necessary reading skills. Another piece of knowledge that I acquired was that students with a second language may help students with only one language learn the second language. These students have acquire and gathered skills that lead them to learning this second language. They can pass along these skills to help aid the other students when learning a second language. There are certain classroom activities that also can help students learn the second language.


Delpit, L. (2006). Other People’s Children. New York: The New Press.


Horst, M., White, J., & Bell, P. (2010). First and second language knowledge in the language classroom. International Journal Of Bilingualism, 14(3), 331-349. doi:10.1177/1367006910367848


Tan, C., Chen, C., & Lee, H. (2013). Using a Paper-based Digital Pen for Supporting English Courses in Regular Classrooms to Improve Reading Fluency. Journal Of Humanities & Arts Computing: A Journal Of Digital Humanities, 7234-246. doi:10.3366/ijhac

E4: Phil & History

Adrianna Blanchette

October 6, 2014

E4: Phil & History


For this assignment I decided to choose the topic multiple intelligences for my conceptual analysis.

  1. What is the dictionary definition of the concept? What were the origins of the concept?

Howard Gardner himself states, “Multiple intelligences is a psychological theory about the mind. It’s a critique of the notion that there’s a single intelligence which we’re born with, which can’t be changed, and which psychologists can measure. It’s based on a lot of scientific research in fields ranging from psychology to anthropology to biology. It’s not based upon based on test correlations, which most other intelligence theories are based on. The claim is that there are at least eight different human intelligences. Most intelligence tests look at language or logic or both – those are just two of the intelligences. The other six are musical, spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. I make two claims. The first claim is that all human beings have all of these intelligences. It’s part of our species definition. The second claim is that, both because of our genetics and our environment, no two people have exactly the same profile of intelligences, not even identical twins, because their experiences are different.” Harvard professor Howard Gardner has identified eight different types of intelligences that each individual has the capacity to possess. The idea of multiple intelligences is important because it allows for educators to identify differing strengths and weaknesses in students and also contradicts the idea that intelligence can be measured through IQ. In researching about genius, we found that Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences provides a great alternative to the popular measurable IQ method. (www.cse.emory.edu) Howard Gardner developed MI theory in the late 1970s and early 1980s. In doing so, he drew on evidence from a wide variety of sources, disciplines, and research tradition. He presented the theory for the first time in 1983, in the book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (New edition, 2011). (http://multipleintelligencesoasis.org/about/)

  1. What are the limits of the concept? What does the concept not mean?

Multiple intelligences is limited to the main intelligences that originated from Gardner. These intelligences are visual-spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, linguistic and logical-mathematical. Gardner uses these intelligences to help guide teachers and parents on how students learn. These intelligences can be used in planning lesson plans, coordinating homework and providing the best education possible for all students.  “According to Gardner, an intelligence is the ability to solve problems or to create products that are valued within one or more cultural settings. Intelligences arise from the combination of a person’s genetic heritage and life conditions in a given culture and era.” (Wares, A. (2013).) The concept of multiple intelligences does not mean that all students land in just one category or even a category at all. All students are difference with different situations. Some of these situations could be that a student would fall into multiple categories, a student solely falls in one category, or a student may feel that they do not belong in any category fully. Students may be fully in one category, but they also just a second or third category to assist their learning. This allows the student to receive the education to their fullest. One limit of the concept is that students are not officially put into categories. These categories are simply to assist the student’s learning. Giving students the option of how they want to learn is so important. We as adults may not always learn how students learn best. If we provide students with learning materials in many different ways, then the students have a better chance of receiving the information that works the best for the individual student.

  1. What are related terms for the concept?

After Gardner’s initial theory of multiple intelligences, Daniel Goleman also added to multiple intelligences. Goleman added two more intelligences. “Daniel Goleman (1995), who began with the emotional intelligence (El) theory, expanded this theory into a consideration of social and emotional intelligence (SEI; Goleman, 2006). Goleman theorized that a person’s feelings and passions are the guiding force of his or her behavior. El is the enhanced capacity to recognize and control one’s own emotions. SEI expands this concept as one shows a capacity to recognize and work well with the emotions of others. Unfortunately, the world of education has had little experience with SEI theory because Goleman spent more time in business and industry in the application of his theory. (Adcock, P. K. (2014)) The two newest intelligences help assist the other initial intelligences. These intelligences focus on emotions. Other terms that are related with multiple intelligences are lesson planning, how students’ brains function and interacting with one another. Multiple intelligences is key when lesson planning. Teachers need to provide lessons that will target all of the students’ learning ways. These learning ways correlate with multiple intelligences. The multiple intelligences are how students’ brains work in receiving and recalling information. These intelligences assist to provide students with the best possible way of providing education. Interacting with others is in many of the intelligences. Having the students interact with one another, it may be possible that students may learn the material through different intelligences. If a student shows another student how they received the information, it may be that the other student may understand and start using these practice. It is always a good idea for students to work together. This builds teamwork, partnership and students may learn better when taught or watching another student.

  1. After one’s study, how might the concept be reconceptualized?

After doing research on multiple intelligences, the concept deals with how students receive information and how they learn best. This concept could be reconceptualized by teachers categorizing students into these categories. This may not be the best for students but it could be changed this way. Teachers could put students into groups that have similar and different intelligences. Students can bounce off ideas from each other in these groups. Teachers can make lesson plans that aim to these individual intelligences and also add other intelligences that are similar that the students could also use.

I personally agree with multiple intelligences. I believe that it is a great theory and that all teachers should be considering all intelligences while making lesson plans. I personally found that when I was student teaching I was constantly thinking of the multiple intelligences. It amazed me of how the students learning styles varied so much. I thought about these while making lesson plans to make sure that all the students were receiving the education to their best ability.

I don’t believe that multiple intelligences needs to be reconceptualized. This theory works very well for students. It is shown in multiple students how well students react. I am afraid that once students understand what category they fall under that they will not think they belong to any other. In many cases this is wrong. Students fall into different multiple intelligences categories. Students should embrace all of the categories that they fall into. They can all assist the student in their education.

  1. What might be the implications of this reconceptualized concept on my own world view and social and professional development?

If the concept was reconceptualized it would definitely change how schools are run. Students would be tested to see what intelligences they have and placed in certain studying groups sue to their intelligences. In certain cases this would work well for the students, but I have a feeling that the intelligences would take over how students are taught. Students are supposed to be in groups that have different learning abilities. Students can learn from other students that have similar and different learning skills. I as an educator would be against separating students due to their intelligences. I agree that certain situations lead to students being taken out of their regular classrooms for additional help, but not placed into different classroom entirely. Another worry I would have would be that once a student finds out what intelligence category they fall into they would feel that they wouldn’t fit into any other one. Many students fall into multiple categories. I would be afraid that students would focus solely on this one intelligence and not use all of the intelligences to their fullest. I believe that teachers need to be aware of these intelligences due to the fact that it is so important to understand how students learn in their many ways. We can take these learning skills and adapt them to fit the best in the classrooms. I feel that students now a days are being tested and put into so many different categories that this should not become another category we put our students in. It is great information for not only teachers but parents as well. Parents can observe and talk to the teachers about what intelligences they believe the student exhibits. They can take this knowledge and use it at home. They can find ways to make homework easier for the student. Having both the parents and teacher on the same page will lead to a successful student in the end.




The website states what multiple intelligences according to Howard Gardner himself.

The website has accurate and reliable information because there are quotes directly from Gardner and has authors that are stated on the website.



The website provides information about when and how Gardner developed the concept of multiple intelligences.

The website has accurate information because it is Gardner’s website and has cited authors that have documented pieces on it.


Adcock, P. K. (2014). The Longevity of Multiple Intelligence Theory in Education. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 80(4), 50-57


Wares, A. (2013). An application of the theory of multiple intelligences in mathematics classrooms in the context of origami. International Journal Of Mathematical Education In Science & Technology, 44(1), 122-131. doi:10.1080/0020739X.2012.662297


Furnham, A., & Shagabutdinova, K. (2012). Sex differences in estimating multiple intelligences in self and others: A replication in Russia. International Journal Of Psychology, 47(6), 448-459. doi:10.1080/00207594.2012.658054


Clarke, A., & Cripps, P. (2012). Fostering Creativity: A Multiple Intelligences Approach to Designing Learning in Undergraduate Fine Art. International Journal Of Art & Design Education, 31(2), 113-126. doi:10.1111/j.1476-8070.2012.01736.x


Furnham, A. (2009). The Validity of a New, Self-report Measure of Multiple Intelligence. Current Psychology, 28(4), 225-239. doi:10.1007/s12144-009-9064-z


Ghazi, S., Shahzada, G., Gilani, U., Shabbir, M., & Rashid, M. (2011). RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS’ SELF PERCEIVED MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES AND THEIR ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT. International Journal Of Academic Research, 3(2), 619-623.


Tutwiler, S., Ming-Chao, L., & Chun-Yen, C. (2013). The use of a gesture-based system for teaching multiple intelligences: A pilot study. British Journal Of Educational Technology, 44(5), E133-E1. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01368.x




Gardner, H. (2011). Promoting Learner Engagement Using Multiple Intelligences and Choice-Based Instruction. Adult Basic Education & Literacy Journal, 5(2), 97-101.


McKethan, R., Rabinowitz, E., & Kernodle, M. W. (2010). Multiple Intelligences in Virtual and Traditional Skill Instructional Learning Environments. Physical Educator, 67(3), 156-168.